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GALLERY 1 (2D)

Zoltan Boros and Gabor Szikszai (boros-szikszai.com)

Renegade (M.A.G.U.S. 'Renegade' book cover art), 1998

Acrylics

Introduction

Renegade is an artwork created by Zoltán Boros and Gábor Szikszai in 1998. It is not their first, nor their last fantasy picture, yet the most renowned of all. It was ordered as a book cover for the famous M.Á.G.U.S. novel, Renegade, written by Dale Avery, but it was also painted as a separate masterpiece. Although the painting is not part of any official gallery, it can be seen on the online gallery of the artist-duo.

The Artists

They were born in 1965, Zoltán Boros in Szekszárd, while Gábor Szikszai in Salgótarján. They made their first contact with each other when they attended the same secondary school, the Budapest Secondary School of Fine Arts, and thus their friendship was born. Already in their first year they managed to succeed by creating numerous artworks for the biggest Hungarian sci-fi magazine, Galaktika. Later they both attended the University of Fine Arts in Hungary and achieved the same degrees: Graphic Artist, Teacher of Art History, Graphics and Geometry. As time went by, they started to try new techniques, including computer graphics, which contributed to their work with Blizzard, Hasbro, Wizards of the Coast and even Electronic Arts. In 2006, they were awarded Artists of the Year by the InQuest magazine and they won the Chesley Award (being the best gaming-related illustrators).

Renegade

Acrylics painting which was originally ordered as the book cover for Dale Avery's novel, Renegade. The picture was inspired by one of the characters in the novel, a man huntress, Ascyra. Though the woman is not the protagonist of the novel, she bears a great significance in the chain of happenings. This fact is even emphasized by the picture; the originally sandy, therefore presumably yellow background is blue, raising the attention on the brown-clothed woman, whose posture is rather inhuman. The picture clearly sets the uniqueness of the novel, the setting, the people which we, readers might come across with, and the mood, which is, based on the colours and the woman's expressions, a dark, cold, ambiguous and deadly mood, which offers hours of thrill to a reader.

Marót Benedek

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Hieronymus Bosch

Hieronymus Bosch was an early Netherlandish painter and was famous because of his works with fantastic imagery to illustrate moral and religious concepts and narratives. His most famous painting is The Garden of Earthly Delights which depicts the paradise with Adam and Eve and many wondrous animals ,numerous nude figures and tremendous fruit and and also hell with depictions of fantastic punishments of the various types of sinners. 20th-century art historians  place the work in 1503 or 1504 and its dimensions are  220 cm × 389 cm. It is located in Museo del Prado in Madrid

Outer panel: When the wings are closed, the design of the outer panels becomes visible. The outer panels lack color. The outer panels are generally thought to depict the Creation of the world probably on the third day, after the addition of plant life but before the appearance of humanity. Bosch renders the plant life in an unusual fashion, using uniformly gray tints which make it difficult to determine whether the subjects are purely vegetable or perhaps include some mineral formations.


The left panel (sometimes known as the Joining of Adam and Eve) depicts a scene from the paradise of the Garden of Eden commonly interpreted as the moment when God presents Eve to Adam. The painting shows Adam waking from a deep sleep to find God holding Eve by her wrist and giving the sign of his blessing to their union. The surrounding landscape is populated by hut-shaped forms, some of which are made from stone, while others are at least partially organic.


The centre panel The skyline of the centre panel matches exactly with that of the left wing, while the positioning of its two central pools echoes the lake in the earlier panel.
The center image depicts the expansive "garden" landscape which gives the triptych its name. The panel shares a common horizon with the left wing, suggesting a temporal and spatial connection between the two scenes.
The garden is teeming with male and female nudes, together with a variety of animals, plants and fruit Fantastic creatures mingle with the real; otherwise ordinary fruits appear engorged to a gigantic size. The numerous human figures revel in an innocent, self-absorbed joy; some enjoy sexual pleasures, others play unselfconsciously in the water
In the right-hand side of the foreground stand a group of both fair and black-skinned figures.  One woman carries a cherry on her head, a common symbol of pride at the time.
Around them, birds infest the water while winged fish crawl on land. Humans inhabit giant shells. All are surrounded by over-sized fruit pods and eggshells, and both humans and animals feast on strawberries and cherries.

The right panel represents hell, a world where humans couldn’t resist the temptations. During the Middle Ages, sexuality and lust were seen as evidence of man's fall from grace, and the most foul of the seven deadly sins. This sin is depicted in the left-hand panel. The scene is set at night, and the natural beauty that adorned the earlier panels is noticeably absent. Large explosions in the background throw light through the city gate. War, torture chambers, infernal taverns, and demons in the midground; and mutated animals feeding on human flesh in the foreground. The foreground is populated by a variety of distressed, condemned figuresed figures. Some are shown vomiting or excreting, others are crucified by harp and lute. Animals are shown punishing humans, subjecting them to nightmarish torments that may symbolise the seven deadly sins
The focal point of the scene is the "Tree-Man" His head supports a disk populated by demons and victims together with bagpipes The tree-man's torso is formed from a broken eggshell.

Majoros Dániel
 

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Jonathon Earl Bowser

The Awakening

Oil on Linen – 48” x 30”

Goddess of Spring – Nature’s Resurrection after Winter Death

Bowser was born in 1962 in Canada. He Graduated from Alberta College of Art in1984. His Original paintings are in public and private collections across North-America, Europe and Asia – including the government collection of China and Taiwan. He is one of the most famous Canadian painters in recent history. His popularity is partly due to the huge amount of fans on the internet.

He has unique figurative-landscape paintings that he calls Mythic Naturalism. His works focuses on ideas of mythical goddesses and iconographic images of divine feminine beauty. He also dedicated his art towards symbolic meaning(s) between nature, sexuality and spirituality.

His painting The Awakening became well known in Iraq when Saddam Hussein stole it as a cover for his symbolic romance novel, Zabibah and the King in 2001. Although it was a clear copyright infringement nothing could be done since the book was not published in America. Inside the book there are three more paintings from Browser which were stolen: Guinevere, A Dark Knight and Shadow Rapids.

Kiss Adrienn

 

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Unknown Photographer

Thich Quang Duc, 1963

b/w Photograph

This picture was taken on 11th June 1963 by an unknown photographer  at an intersection of Phan Dinh Phung Boulevard and Le Van Duyet Street in Saigon, Vietnam when a Buddhist monk named Thích Quảng Đức burned himself to death. This act of martyrdom has marked the pinnacle of the Buddhist Crisis in Vietnam, which broke out in May 1963, when president Ngô Đěnh Diệm introduced a law that infringed the religious rights of Buddhists living in Vietnam and ended with a coup and the subsequent execution of Diệm in November 1963.

The sacrifice Đức made had a huge media impact all around the world: pictures of him sitting on the road, burning to death were on the front page of many newspapers all around the world and a similar photo made by Malcolm Browne won the World Press Photo of the Year in 1963. In the aftermath of the burning Đức’s body was re-cremated but his heart did not burn. Today the ashes and the charred heart are kept as relics of the Buddhist faith in the Reserve Bank of Vietnam and Đức, himself, is revered as bodhisattva (meaning enlightened-being) among the Buddhists of Vietnam.

This picture can be considered to be a modern (and Buddhist) equivalent of Christ on the Cross with the exception that it is far more vivid and graphic than a statue. What was truly exceptional about Đức’s sacrifice is that he remained completely silent and still for the whole duration of his immolation (approx. 10 minutes), despite the fact that burning to death is one of the most painful deaths known to mankind. His strangely calm and relaxed posture gives the picture an unnerving atmosphere making it almost impossible to forget.

Boda Tamás Gergely

http://www.quangduc.com/BoTatQuangDuc/25photo.html

http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/learning_history/vietnam/vietnam_photography_teacher.cfm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Th%C3%ADch_Qu%E1%BA%A3ng_%C4%90%E1%BB%A9c#cite_note-29

 

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Robert Capa (1913-1954)

Air Raid, Bilbao, 1937

b/w Photograph

Robert Capa was a Hungarian photographer, born in Budapest in 1913. He left Hungary at the age of 18, feeling that there was little future for him under the regime. Originally he wanted to work as a writer in Berlin, in 1933, but due to the rise of Nazism, it was difficult to work as a freelance journalist. Instead, he started to work as a photographer, and grew to love the art. He changed his name (Endre Ernő Friedmann) to Robert Capa, in order to make it more recognisable in English-speaking countries. Later, in 1947 he founded Magnum Photos, an international photographic cooperative.

              Robert Capa made photographs in five different wars: the Spanish Civil War, the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Second World War, the Arab-Israeli War in 1948 and the First Indochina War. Most of his photographs include images of people involved in conflicts, fighting soldiers and civilians alike. Capa tried to blend in among these people, instead of being an observer. One of his famous quotes is "If your picture isn't good enough, you're not close enough." He took photographs of the D-Day landings in Omaha Beach in 1944 by swimming to the shores with the soldiers – unfortunately, only a small number of these photographs survived, due to a darkroom accident.

              This photograph was taken 1937, in Bilbao, Spain, during the Spanish Civil War. Bilbao was the capital of the first Basque Autonomous Government, surrounded by a defensive line called the Iron Belt to defend it against the Nationalist Army. Robert Capa captured a moment on a street of Bilbao during an air raid. The picture gives no direct reference to this happening: the picture shows a small group of civilians on a street corner of an urban area. The only thing which can refer to the air raid is the direction where most of the people on the picture are looking, and the facial expressions, which express anxiety and fear.

Zelei Robert

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Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1590)

Lady with an Ermine, c. 1490

Oil on wood panel

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci was an Italian polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, botanist and writer as well. Leonardo was born on April 15, 1452, in the Tuscan hill town of Vinci, in the territory of Florence. He was the illegitimate son of a famous notary and a peasant. Little is known about his early life. He spent his first five years in the hamlet of Anchiano, then lived in the household of his father. His father married a 6-year-old girl who loved Leonardo but died young. In 1466, he was apprenticed in one of the finest workshops of Florence. In the next years, he got to know other people who were engrossed in painting and then collaborated with them. In his professional life he continued working with those people he had met before and had made friends with. In the early 16th century he spent his time in the Vatican in Rome with Michelangelo. He died in 1512. Some 20 years later, after his death, it was said about him : "There had never been another man born in the world who knew as much as Leonardo, not so much about painting, sculpture and architecture, as that he was a great philosopher.”

His works and creations are attached to the era of the Renaissance, indeed. As a painter, he wanted not only to describe visible appearance but also emotions - the flow of thoughts. This approach changed this simple painter into a genius. He thought that painting was the work of mind and hand as well. According to his attitude, painters have to describe two important things: humans and the thoughts of their minds. Both of them contribute to the disclosure of personality. His paintings are about religious phenomena or portraits with the exception of the battle of Anghiar.

One of Leonardo's most well-known and invaluable paintings is a portrait of Cecilia Gallarani, The lady with an ermine. It was painted for the duke of Milan at the end of the 15th century (approximately in 1489-90). This masterpiece is in oil on a wooden panel. She was most probably the mistress of the duke. This portrait conveys plenty of innovations. In the 1400s, oil painting was a new form of art; however, the most influential phenomenon in connection with the painting is the simple and model-like representation of the young lady. Her gaze is directed neither straight ahead, nor  towards the viewer, but towards a "third-party” beyond the picture's frame. Her dress is relatively simple and it suggests she was not a noblewoman. The ermine, a stoat in its winter coat was a traditional symbol of purity. Other scientists believe that animal in her hands symbolizes her pregnancy. Today, the painting is located in Krakkow.

 Enyedi István

 Sources :    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonardo_da_Vinci

                  http://www.sze.hu/muvtori/belso/stilusok/reneszansz/ren06.htm

                   http://www.kronika.ro/index.php?action=open&res=31177

                  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Lady_with_an_Ermine

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Herbert James Draper

The Lament for Icarus -  1898

Oil on canvas, 1829mm X 1156mm

 

            Herbert James Draper was an English painter of the Victorian era. He studied at the Royal Academy in London and took several educational trips to Rome and Paris, and was indeed influenced by French impressionism.

            Draper's most productive period began in 1894 in which he focused mainly on mythological themes from ancient Greece. This period brought The Lament for Icarus, which was finished in 1898. The painting won the gold medal at the Exposition Universelle (World Fair) in Paris in 1900.

The value of the painting can easily be determined given the fact that the work was purchased by the Chantrey Bequest on behalf of the nation, the same year it got finished. Experts say the inspiration of the work might have been the loss of Draper's father in 1898.

            The picture shows the dead Icarus in the foreground surrounded by three sea-nymphs lamenting his death and the loss of value in the physical perfection of the hero. Icarus lies wearily on his back and wings, forceless, lifeless, while the nymphs adore the physique of the hero and lament his death. The lyre and the wreath in the picture are all symbols of transience. The background presents cliffs, the sea and the Sun, in the form of sunlight projecting on the cliffs.

            The work consists of four different figure studies done at different times, and later assembled into one glorious, erotic interaction of four nude figures on the canvas. For late-Victorian painters and sculptors, the use of the male body as a vehicle of projection of subjective feelings, is a  common attribute.

Benkő Dániel

 

 

 

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Zena Holloway

Retouched photograph


This is a photo taken by Zena Holloway, British photographer. In my opinion she is a very talented and creative artist, her pictures are all very mysterious and interesting. Holloway was born in Bahrain in 1973 and raised in London. When she was 18 she travelLed around the world as a scuba diving instructor and that was the turning point in her life, because she started to have a passion for underwater photography and film. She taught herself the skills needed to master this most technical of photographic techniques.

Now based in London, she regularly shoots for a range of magazines and advertising clients who appreciate the unique impact of her colourful creamlike images.

Zena has most recently completed a two year project to illustrate Charles Kingsley's 1863 novel The Water Babies. Surely confirming her as one of the world's most patient photographers for her ability to work with both animals and children underwater.

Her images are striking and magical, she has taken underwater photography to entirely new depths. I like this photo because it is creative, people can think about a background story when they look at it. I like the lights and the colours, the whole picture is incredibly dynamic.

Karsai Agi

http://www.zenaholloway.com/zena.html

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Johnson

German-born but of American ancestry, illustrator and painter Howard David Johnson (September 2, 1954- present day) blends contemporary realism and mythology. He visited the great museums of Europe as a boy and fell in love with traditional art, especially the Pre-Raphaelites, whom he imitated the most.  He attended the University of Texas at Austin College of Fine Art and began his career working as a scientific illustrator for their School of Paleontology reconstructing dinosaurs in 1974. His scientific and realistic approach to illustrating history, folklore and mythology brought him international acclaim after his King Arthur Illustrations were exhibited in The British Museum in 1996. He works in a wide variety of media ranging from traditional oil paintings, colored pencils, graphite, chalk&oil pastels, photography, watercolors to digital artistry and mixed media. As an outspoken proponent of mechanical aids to visual art his legal use of computers and other mechanical aids like photography made him a very controversial figure around the turn of the millennia. He has also experimented with many styles but is generally characterized as a Symbolist or belated Pre-Raphaelite. Sentimentality regarding values like innocence, naturalness and beauty, as well as minute detail and bright color characterize most of his works. Johnson has done illustrations for books, magazines, games, motion pictures, television programs and computer softwares. He founded the Brandywine School of Illustrative Art in 1996.

Faerie Guardians (2006) is one of David Johnson's newest oil paintings on 20x16 canvas and features Shakespearean actor & model Jessica Spence as Titania, High Queen of the Fairies. Of all Shakespeare's works A Midsummer Night's Dream has had the most compelling hold on the imagination of painters. To create his fairy paintings, he usually starts with a thematic concept followed by a rough realistic pencil sketch, then followed by his original photography, often traveling to find suitable scenes and locations. Then he works in his photography studio with live models from his sketches. He then assembles a variety of elements which are realistic and original.  Beginning with a tracing, he then draws or paints from these new complex original Computer Photo Montages. As this happens, the finished painting is substituted in the exhibit. His favorite medium for Fairy Paintings is colored pencil because of the high speed and low expense. Working in a realistic style inspired by classic illustrators he is deeply rooted and grounded in the Greco-Roman artistic tradition, feeling that with realistic art, the human form is the ultimate arena for artistic expression.

 Belány Krisztina

http://www.howarddavidjohnson.com

 

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Michelangelo Buonarotti (1475-1564)

Creation of Adam, c.1511

Fresco

Michelangelo Buonarroti is certainly the most representative artist of the XVI century. He was a renaissance sculptor, painter, architect, and poet. He worked in Florence and Rome, lived to a great age, and enjoyed great fame in his lifetime. He is unique in Italy and perhaps in the universe. One of his main works is ‘The Creation of Man’, or as it is often called, ‘The Creation of Adam’. In it the artist's genius reaches its high-water mark.

Michelangelo accepted the commission from Pope Julius II to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. The frescoes depict prophets, sibyls and scenes from Genesis. For four years Michelangelo painted the ceiling (1508–1512), lying on his back most of the time. It illustrates the Biblical story from the Book of Genesis in which God the Father breathes life into Adam, the first man. The Creation of Man is the fourth panel in the series of nine which constitutes the central portion of the frescoes; or the sixth in the series reckoned in the order in which it was painted.

Composition

God is depicted as an elderly bearded man wrapped in a cloak while Adam, on the lower left, is completely nude. God's right arm is outstretched to the still recumbent first man to impart the spark of life from his own finger. Adam’s left arm is extended in a pose mirroring God's, a reminder that man is created in the image and likeness of God. As Adam reaches out his left hand, that part of his body begins to live. His heart starts to beat and he pulls up his left leg. All of his right part is still powerless in this split second of the creation. That is the reason why we can see Adam’s right part with stretched leg and leaned elbow.

Another point is that Adam's finger and God's finger are not touching. It gives the appearance that God, the giver of life, is reaching out to Adam and Adam is receiving.

Michelangelo's is known as a well-documented expert in human anatomy. As you can see the pink backdrop behind God is in the anatomically accurate shape of a human brain.

Then Michelangelo did not paint again until 1536, when he started the Last Judgment, on the back wall of the Sistine Chapel (finished in 1541). This was one of his last works in the field of painting. Finally he died in Rome in 1564, but he was buried in Florence.

Tóth Anikó

Sources:

 Ürögdi, György. Panoráma sorozat- Külföldi városkalauz/Róma Budapest: Franklin Nyomda, 1983.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Creation_of_Adam

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michelangelo#Sistine_Chapel_ceiling

http://www.thecreationofadam.com/

http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Sixtus-k%C3%A1polna_mennyezetfresk%C3%B3ja

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Alfons Mucha – Zodiac

 Colour lithograph, 1896

65.7 x 48.2 cm

(numerous different versions exist)

The Czech master of Art Nouveau, Alfons Maria Mucha (1860-1939) was born in Moravia. He became well-known towards the turn of the century for his theatrical poster designs and decorative prints that featured seductive, graceful female figures, the ‘femme fatale’ of his age. Mucha’s art was heavily influenced by symbolism and orientalism (thus his heavily ornamented style). During the years he spent in Paris he also drew inspiration from the decadent Parisian life.

Mucha was a multi-talented individual, he is best known for being a painter (creator of decorative and also historical paintings – e.g. the series he considered his masterpiece, the Slav Epic), but he also designed sculptures, interesting pieces of jewellery (often disregarding wearability), banknotes for the Czech Republic, a stained glass window for St. Vitus cathedral in Prague, and he also did the complete interior design for a jewellery shop in Paris.

Some of Mucha’s best (and best known) works were created near the turn of the century, just like one of his most successful prints, Zodiac, made in 1896. The focus on this lithograph is clearly on the dominant central figure, one of Mucha’s signature female figures: a graceful, mysterious woman, with long, beautiful and swirling, arabesque-like hair, and a facial expression suggesting that she is all-knowing, powerful, and stands above everything. The woman could be an exotic gypsy queen, holding the mysteries of the zodiac - or even the personification of the zodiac itself; Mucha liked to personify objects and notions with enchanting female characters. The woman’s unique jewels also increase the feeling of her otherworldliness. The lush floral decoration in the background is also very characteristic of Mucha’s works. The dynamism of the whole print is created by the curves, spirals and intricate ornamentation. The main image in the background is a zodiac depicting the star signs, probably symbolising eternity or the universe itself. It is a spiritual motif, referring to the birth of life and control over it – or at least the faith in some kind of control over it. In this particular artwork, the artist manages to elevate this kind of folkloristic belief to the level of fine art, thereby making it accessible to anyone.

The greatness of Mucha’s art lies exactly in this feature of his works: he blurred the boundaries between folklore and fine art, and also between applied art and fine art. He created romantic dream worlds and managed to elevate applied art to the level of fine art by designing his posters and decorative compositions to as high a standard as if they were paintings.

Dóra Szíjártó

Works consulted:

Ulmer, Renate: Mucha. Taschen / Vince Kiadó, 2003

A quite comprehensive online gallery of Mucha’s works, for those interested:

http://www.abcgallery.com/M/mucha/mucha.html

 

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Edgar Müller (1968-)

The Crevasse, 2008

Dun Laoghaire

 

Müller is a German street painter, born in 1968. He encountered the art of street painting at the age of 16, going on to win the competition, aged 19, with a copy of the famous "Jesus at Emmaus " (Caravaggio). Since 1998 he  has held the title of 'maestro madonnari' (master street painter), borne by only a few artists worldwide. At the age of 25, he completely devoted himself to street painting. He travelled all over Europe, “doing his thing” and he also held workshops at schools. Müller set up the first (and so far only) Internet board for street painters in Germany – a forum designed to promote solidarity between German street painters.

  The Crevasse

This huge painting was made in Dun Laoghaire, Ireland at the Festival of World Culture in August 2008. Müller transformed a huge slice of the East Pier into a dramatic ice age scene. It took him 5 days to complete the masterpiece, with the help of up to five assistants. The picture is approximately 250 square metres in size.

  Street art

It is thought to have originated in Italy during the 16th century. The term covers any art developed in public spaces (i.e.”in the streets”). Pavement painting or street painting is a variety of street arts. It means drawing on the street with coloured chalks. It includes 3D illusion painting (trompe l’oeil) too.

Other big street artists before and next to Müller include Julian Beever and Kurt Wenner.

Simon Zsófia

Müller’s official website: www.metanamorph.com

The making of this gigantic painting: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3SNYtd0Ayt0&feature=player_embedded

 

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Edvard Munch (1863-1944)

The Scream, 1911

The Scream (Norwegian: Skrik) is the title given to a number of expressionist paintings by Edvard Munch, Norwegian Symbolist painter and printmaker. These depict an agonizing figure with a blood red sky and Norwegian bay Oslofjord as the background. As it is stated, Oslofjord is viewed from the hill of Ekeberg, located in Oslo. The artist having created several versions of The Scream, the Munch Museum holds one of the two paintings. The other one is held at the National Gallery of Norway. Being a target of several high-profile thefts, the one painting in the National Gallery was stolen in 1994. Soon afterwards, the other version was stolen from the Munch Museum. They were both, however, recovered in 2006.                        

As for the inspiration, Munch says the following: "I was walking along a path with two friends — the sun was setting — suddenly the sky turned blood red — I paused, feeling exhausted, and leaned on the fence — there was blood and tongues of fire above the blue-black fjord and the city — my friends walked on, and I stood there trembling with anxiety — and I sensed an infinite scream passing through nature." In fact, the painting has occasionally been called The Cry. Some scholars believe that what Munch painted was nothing but his observations of the effects of the powerful volcanic eruption of Krakatoa  in 1883. This, however, has been disputed by those saying Munch was an expressive rather than descriptive painter.                                                                                                                                    

In popular culture, political humor and advertisements have been created with reference to Munch’s work by people like pop artist Andy Warhol.

Szabó Gábor

 

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Vasarely

Zebra

Victor Vasarely – Vásárhelyi Győző (1908-1997) was born in Hungary, Pécs.

Moves to France in 1930, where he started to compose his first artworks, but he thinks it was only a beginner period

 1947 – he starts to use his creativity, improves himself and creats his own style

 We can see the birth of op –art or contructive view in art, from the decorative textiles to the world – wide popular zebra

 Op – art: Optic paintings , optic art ---- He is the main representative of this type of art

 He says: Movement = violence that art cause a direct stimulus on our retina

Exhibition in his hometown, Pécs: Opens in 1976; international geometric, kinetic and concept artist works can be seen there as well

Vasarely gives most of his works to the city of Pécs, to the museum

Here we can follow his art – periods, he himself stated these periods

1)      1930-47 -  wrong way

2)      Black and white period

3)      lineal period

Question: is it really art? I mean when we say art, in the classical sense of the word, we think of a portray or landscape.

"The art of tomorrow will be a collective treasure, or it will not be art at all…”

Zóra Adrienn Gattyán

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GALLERY 2 (Moving Image)

A collection of short clips proposed by the curators ...

Aniko: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NpSZa00-3eM 2.56

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uCHx_Iw_umY 0.31

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=crTCgkjX9K0&feature=related 1.00

M. Daniel: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WgBeu3FVi60&feature=player_embedded 2.53

Kriszti: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1vPdEWGVN5w&feature=related 0.37

Robert: http://www.gametrailers.com/video/visions-of-assassins-creed/55400 2.05

B. Daniel: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z1n3JBQdN84 4.57

Adrienn: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yX8yrOAjfKM 3.57

Zora: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=538iMqi9S8g&feature=related 2.27

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hYJIAHpDRMs&feature=channel  0.48

            http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S4ZO2FD4pNA  2.30

Dora: http://vimeo.com/9338549 2.56

            http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DyQmLBiJSig 4.36

 Zsofi: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GF9wo9sVn2c

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wigqKfLWjvM&feature=fvst

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e0wkokaybWA

Agi:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MbPEM5eI0_g&feature=fvst , http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EWI1RZp0nFg&feature=related

Christoff: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WcR7U2tuNoY  1.06

 

GALLERY 3 (3D)

Alhambra

The Alhambra

 

The Alhambra; located in Granada, south Spain, is a Moorish citadel which is a complex of palaces, gardens and forts. Muhammed V ordered to construction and it was being built from 1362 – 1391.

 

It has great architectural importance since it was built in a new style: the Nasrid style. It is a mixture of Muslim and Christian style (like the Mudéjar style which also had influence). These impacts are due to the fact Mohammed travelled a lot. Ha was ousted by his stepbrother Abu-I Walid Ismail. One the most influential places were the ruins of ancient roman territories. This is a specially true for the ruins of the roman city Volubilis which became a necropolis. His friendship with Pedro I of Castile also had an impact and it was with the help of the king Muhammed could regain his throne and became the Sultan. Pedro’s construction of the palace Alcázar of Seville also made an impact.

 

The most famous part of Alhambra is the Court of Lions, which is the main court of the Nasrid Palace of Lions, the heart of the Alhambra. It is an oblong court 35 m long and 20 m wide, surrounded by a low gallery with 124 marble columns. There is a pavilion at each extremity with light domed roof richly ornamented and walls decorated with filigree. The square itself is paved with coloured tiles making a path to the centre, where stands the Fountain of Lions. Its basin is made of alabaster while the supporting 12 lion figures are made of white marble. The lions are replaced by replicas, the original ones can be seen in museums.

 

Kiss Adrienn

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Landowski

The Statue of Liberty, New York

The Statue of Liberty, officially entitled Liberty Enlightening the World, dedicated on October 28, 1886, is a monument commemorating the centennial of the signing of the United States Declaration of Independence, given to the United States by the people of France to represent the friendship between the two countries established during the American Revolution

It represents a woman wearing a stola, a radiant crown and sandals, trampling a broken chain, carrying a torch in her raised right hand and a tabula ansata, where the date of the Declaration of Independence is inscribed, in her left arm.
The classical appearance (Roman stola, sandals, facial expression) derives from Libertas, ancient Rome's goddess of freedom from slavery, oppression, and tyranny. Her raised right foot is on the move.

Since the 1940s, it has been claimed that the seven spikes of the crown epitomize the Seven Seas and seven continents. Her torch signifies enlightenment The statue is made of a sheathing of pure copper, hung on a framework of steel (originally puddled iron) with the exception of the flame of the torch, which is coated in gold leaf (originally made of copper and later altered to hold glass panes)

Standing on Liberty Island in New York Harbor, it welcomes visitors, immigrants, and returning Americans traveling by ship.

It stands atop a rectangular stonework pedestal with a foundation in the shape of an irregular eleven-pointed star.
The statue is 46 m tall, but with the pedestal and foundation, it is 93 m tall.
It was sculpted by French sculptor Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi. The first small terracotta model was created in 1870. It is now exhibited at the Musée des Beaux-arts de Lyon.
The idea for the commemorative gift then grew out of the political turmoil which was shaking France at the time. The first small terracotta model was created in 1870. While on a visit to Egypt that was to shift his artistic perspective from simply grand to colossal, Bartholdi was inspired by the project of the Suez Canal. It was agreed that in a joint effort, the people of the United States were to build the base, and the French people were responsible for the statue and its assembly in the States. Bartholdi had initially planned to have the statue completed and presented to the United States on July 4, 1876, but a late start and subsequent delays prevented it.

The construction of the statue was completed in France in July 1884.The statue arrived in New York Harbor on June 17, 1885.To prepare for transit, the statue was reduced to 350 individual pieces and packed in 214 crates.

 

Inspiration for the face

Unsubstantiated sources cite different models for the face of the statue. One indicated the then-recently widowed Isabella Eugenie Boyer, the wife of Isaac Singer, the sewing-machine industrialist.

Another source believed that the "stern face" belonged to Bartholdi's mother, Charlotte Bartholdi (1801–1891), with whom he was very close


Replicas

There are several replicas in Paris and in Tokyo Bay as well. There is a sister statue in Paris and several others elsewhere in France, including one in Bartholdi's home town of Colmar. There also is a replica statue in the middle of the Susquehanna River near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.

Majoros Daniel

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Eiffel

The Eiffel Tower, Paris

One of the symbols of Paris, it’s name comes from the designer,  Gustav Eiffel  (he and his office designed Nyugati Pu. and Margit’s Bridge)

1889 world exhibiton – the idea was to build it for the world exhibition, but originally it was to be demolished after it 

Some details about the tower:                  1

1) 322 metres high-> the tower itself 300 + 22m a TV antenna

2) 3 storeys high  1st storey is at 58 m, 2nd at 116, 3rd at276

3) 10 100 tonnes

4) 12 000 steel pieces

5) 10 tonnes of paint to renovate it

6) until Chrysler Building in NY (1930) was built, it was the highest building

 

Historical background:

By the end of the 1880 architects wanted to build more and more monumental buildings, but these ideas caused serious technical problems (the obelisk in Washington or Chrysler Building)

French Republic wanted to celebrate the 100 jubilee of French revolution in 1789 in a memorable way, so they decided to organize a world exhibition, which was planned on 5.may.1889.

ˇ         The tower was prepared by 6.jun.1884.

ˇ         Stephen Sauvestre was the person who decorated it  ->  There are 72 scientists family name with golden letters on the 1st floor

ˇ         It was a long procedure for Eiffel to get the licence to the building and to create the financial background

ˇ         The pieces were made in a firm in Paris and rigged up in the exact place of the tower

ˇ         It was built with unbelievable speed 12 ms higher in every month

ˇ         In the 2nd world – war  Germans wanted to make weapon of the pieces.

 

ˇ         The tower today: some of the French consider it ugly and they hate it, others call it the old lady and are really into it

Zóra Adrienn Gattyán

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Eriksen

The Little Mermaid,

Copenhagen

The statue was inspired by the fairy tale The Little Mermaid (Danish: Den lille havfrue) written by Hans Christian Andersen in 1836 and first published in 1837. He wrote many children's stories from which the story of The Little Mermaid was his favourite.

 

The Statue of the Little Mermaid sits on a rock in the Copenhagen harbor in Langelinie (Denmark). This small and unimposing statue with a unique design is a Copenhagen icon and a major tourist attraction. It is one of the most photographed statues in the world.  

The statue was commissioned in 1909 by Carl Jacobsen, who had been fascinated by a ballet about the fairytale in Copenhagen’s Royal Theatre and by the solo dancer, Ellen Prince, whose head was modeled for the statue. The sculptor’s wife Eline Eriksen was used for the body as Prince refused to pose in the nude. The sculptor Edvard Eriksen created the original statue, cast in bronze, which was unveiled on 23 August 1913. The Little Mermaid statue is only 1.25 meters high and weighs about 175 kg.

The sculpture pictures her as she wistfully looks towards the shore and to the illuminated world of the humans, after never actually having married the prince, reminiscing over her lost childhood in the sea, as a mermaid. Eriksen has taken poetic license while creating the statue. The lower part of the Little Mermaid Statue contains partial legs and partial fish tail to sculpt her at the moment when her fish tail is being transformed into legs.

The statue displayed in Copenhagen harbour has always been a copy; the original one is kept in the possession of the sculpture’s family. Undamaged copies are located in the US, Romania, China and Brasilia. The grave of Danish-American entertainer Victor Borge, includes a copy as well.

The statue has been vandalized several times, but has each time been restored. It has been decapitated, red paint was thrown at it, was blasted of with dynamite and in 2007 was draped in Muslim clothes. Recently, Copenhagen officials have announced that the statue may be moved further out in the harbor, as to avoid vandalism and tourists climbing onto it.

It was moved for the first time to Shanghai, China for World Expo 2010 from May to the end of October 2010. However, an identical copy will be on display in Tivoli Gardens while her sister is in Shanghai.

 Belány Krisztina

 

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Eila Hiltunen (1922-3003)

Sibelius monument

Helsinki

 

 The monument is located in the capital of Finland, Helsinki; in the Töölö district of the city. It is one of the city’s landmarks and Finland’s first abstract public monument. The sculpture is the creation of Finnish sculptor Eila Hiltunen. It is made up of approximately 600 stainless steel pipes and it weighs 24 tons and measures 8.5 × 10.5 × 6.5 meters.

The monument was designed for a competition organised by Sibelius Society in 1961-62 to commemorate Jean Sibelius, a Finnish composer of the late Romantic period. Sibelius’ work played an important role in the formation of the Finnish national identity. A lot of his works were inspired by the Finnish epic, Kalevala, and his patriotic symphonic poem, Finlandia has become a national song in Finland. The monument intends to capture the essence of Sibelius’ music. It is interesting to note that the hundreds of tubes superficially resemble organ pipes, although Sibelius never composed organ music.

The sculptor, Eila Hiltunen was born in 1922 in Sortavala, Eastern Finland. She studied sculpture at the Finnish Art Academy and won the top academic prize for sculpture twice before graduation. Her radiant and outspoken art was difficult for the Finnish official art establishment to accept: her status as a pioneer modern sculptor has only been fully acknowledged in recent years. In 2001 she was awarded the prestigious Finlandia art prize. Hiltunen died in 2003.

The Sibelius monument was unveiled on September 7. 1967. The process that led to this moment however was not without difficulties. Although Hiltunen’s design was declared the winner in the competition, only after months of heated public debate was she actually commissioned to realize her project. The Monument Committee requested the addition of a figurative element (the composer’s face) to satisfy the public. In shaping Sibelius's face the sculptor chose to depict him in his creative age, not as the familiar elderly man, the national icon. Even this was too much for some critics. The placement of the new element was more of a problem, as it conflicted with the original landscaping plan.

The main part of the monument consists of approximately 600 acid-proof stainless steel tubes of various diameters, hand-textured and individually welded together by Hiltunen herself. Several specialists were consulted on metallurgy, structure and welding methods, the physical accomplishment of the structure is the work of two people, Hiltunen, and her assistant-metalworker. The work lasted almost four years in a dark and ice-cold temporary studio in Helsinki. Hiltunen would work for hours on individual tubes, and this exposed her to toxic metal fumes resulting in chronic bronchial asthma. Apart from physical hardship, Hiltunen also endured constant public pressure during the project.

When the monument was finally assembled and unveiled in 1967, debate virtually ceased. Nowadays Sibelius Monument is a must for tourists.

 Dóra Szíjártó

Works consulted:

http://www.eilahiltunen.net/index.html

 

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Gaudi

The Temple Expiatori de la Sagrada Família (official Catalan name: "Expiatory Church of the Holy Family"), often simply called the Sagrada Família, is a massive, privately-funded Roman Catholic church that has been under construction in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain since 1882 and is not expected to be complete until at least 2026, that would be the 100th anniversary of its designer’s death.

The Sagrada Família was designed by Antoni Gaudi (1852-1926), who worked on the project from 1883 and devoted the last fifteen years of his life entirely to this project. In 1882, prior to Gaudí's involvement, Francesc del Villar was commissioned to design a church. He resigned a year later and Gaudí was appointed the project architect, redesigning the project entirely. The project is scheduled to be completed in 2026. On the subject of the extremely long construction period, Gaudí is said to have remarked, "My client is not in a hurry." After Gaudí's death in 1926, work continued under the direction of Domenech Sugranyes until interrupted by the Spanish Civil War in 1936. Gaudí's models and workshop were destroyed during the war by Catalan Anarchists. The present design is based on reconstructed versions of the lost plans as well as on modern adaptations.

Every part of the design of La Sagrada Família is replete with Christian symbolism, as Gaudí intended the church to be the "last great sanctuary of Christendom". A total of eighteen tall towers are called for, representing in ascending order of height the Twelve Apostles, the four Evangelists, the Virgin Mary and, tallest of all, Jesus Christ. The Evangelists' towers will be surmounted by sculptures of their traditional symbols: a bull (St Luke), a winged man (St Matthew), an eagle (St John), and a lion (St Mark). The central tower of Jesus Christ is to be surmounted by a giant crossd; the tower's total height (170 m) will be one metre less than that of Montjuic (a hill in Barcelona).

The Church will have three grand facades: the Nativity facade to the East, the Glory facade to the South and the Passion facade to the West. Themes throughout the decoration include words from the liturgy. The towers are reproduced words from the Bible in various languages including Catalan. Considering the interior of the church, the columns are a unique Gaudí design. Their ever-changing surfaces are the result of the intersection of various geometric forms. The simplest example is that of a square base evolving into an octagon as the column rises, then a sixteen-sided form, and eventually to a circle. Gaudí used hyperboloid structures in the designs.

The church is scheduled to open for worship by September 2010. Later on November 7 the Pope is scheduled to consecrate the temple.

Considered the master-work of Antoni Gaudi, the project's vast scale has made it one of Barcelona's (and Spain's) top tourist attractions for many years.

Tóth Anikó

Sources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sagrada_Fam%C3%ADlia

http://www.cursos.org/cee?l=eng&go=ba05&d=2005-08-02

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antoni_Gaud%C3%AD

 

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Givenchy

Givenchy look 22. Natalia

Long bustier undulating hem in hand pleated and ruched silk organza in a degrade of pale parme, violet and black and bodice set with beige crystals.

Haute couture (French for "high sewing" or "high dressmaking"; pronounced [oːt kutyʁ]) refers to the creation of exclusive custom-fitted clothing. Haute couture is made to order for a specific customer, and it is usually made from high-quality, expensive fabric and sewn with extreme attention to detail and finish by the most experienced and capable seamstresses, often using time-consuming, hand-executed techniques. Couture is a common abbreviation of Haute Couture, which refers to the same thing in spirit. It originally referred to Englishman Charles Frederick Worth's work, produced in Paris in the mid-nineteenth century. In modern France, haute couture is a "protected name" that can be used only by firms that meet certain well-defined standards. However, the term is also used loosely to describe all high-fashion custom-fitted clothing, whether it is produced in Paris or in other fashion capitals such as Milan, London, New York, Tokyo and Madrid.

To earn the right to call itself a couture house and to use the term haute couture in its advertising and any other way, members of the Chambre syndicale de la haute couture must follow these rules:

• Design made-to-order for private clients, with one or more fittings.

• Have a workshop (atelier) in Paris that employs at least fifteen people full-time.

• Each season (i.e., twice a year), present a collection to the Paris press, comprising at least thirty-five runs/exits with outfits for both daytime wear and evening wear.

The house of Givenchy was founded in 1952 by designer Hubert de Givenchy and is a member of Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture et du Pret-a-Porter. It is owned by luxury goods behemoth LVMH and in 1993 achieved a total sales worth of $176 million, making it the second largest apparel division of LVMH after Dior. During his reign as the designer of the label bearing his name, Hubert de Givenchy was known for his modern, ladylike styles, which earned him many loyal clients. The most famous patron of the brand was Audrey Hepburn .John Galliano succeeded Givenchy upon his retirement but was in turn promoted to Christian Dior less than two years later, prompting the hiring of Alexander McQueen. In 2001, designer Julien McDonald was appointed Artistic Director for the women's lines, which consist of haute couture and ready-to-wear. The reins for both collections were ultimately passed on to Riccardo Tisci in 2005 when he was named chief designer of womens-wear. Tisci's apparent fascination with gothic touches (dark, languid dresses on sickly-looking models for fall couture) and space-age minimalism (one ready-to-wear show featured white-clad models drifting aimlessly around a sterile-white sphere) have drawn new attention to the brand. Reviews and output so far have been mixed and inconsistent, but many, including influential fashion critics (such as Cathy Horyn of the New York Times and Suzy Menkes of the International Herald Tribune) have homed in on Tisci's conceptual leanings, as well as his future potential for revitalizing the Givenchy brand and infusing it with his precision and imagination.

Karsai Agi

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Hundertwasser

Hundertwasserhaus, Vienna

Friendreich Hundertwasser was born in 1928 in Vienna as Friedrich Stowasser but he considered New Zealand  as his home where he died in 2000 on New Zealand seas aboard RMS Queen Elizabeth 2.

In his works, he utilised bright colours and organic forms, his main themes are the reconciliation of humans with nature, strong individualism and a rejection of straight lines claiming them artificial.

He was influenced by Austrian painters Schiele and Klimt, and was fascinated with spirals and biomorphic forms. He called his art "transautomatism" focusing on the experience of the viewer rather than the artist. He also worked in the filed of applied arts, and designed flags, stamps, coins and posters.

He got into architecture in the 1950's. He is mostly known for his individual architectural forms and designs. He used irregular forms and liked to incorporate the natural features of the landscape into the design of the buildings.

The Hundertwasserhaus  is an apartment block in the 3rd district of Vienna, which was designed from 1981by Hundertwasser himself, in co-operation with Peter Pelikan (architect), using 52 match boxes for the design method. The construction of the building began in August 1983 and lasted until October 1985. The artist himself took part in the work,  the physical construction as well. The costs of the building were 7.1 million Euros worh of Austrian Schilling (1986 value).

 The key elements of the building are:

Greenery on the roof including grass, bushes and trees planted on the roof to be "as natural as possible"

Windows in different shapes and sizes. Hundertwasser claims that the windows can be considered as "the family of old, young, stout and slender"

Uneven walls and floors to express "walking on a forest floor"  with its own natural curves and heights.

Odd non-sequential layout scheme of the building as if the apartments were just "stacked on top of each other"

Trees planted on top and inside of the building with branches expending from the windows.

The house contains 52 apartments, 4 offices 16 private and 3 communal terraces with 250 trees and bushes overall. The materials used are bricks, mortar, glass, tile and wood. Each apartment is painted with a different colour. The building conquers 3.5 thousand square meters of space. The artist accepted no payment for his work.

Dániel Benkő

 

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Kapoor

Cloud Gate

Chicago, Illinois

Anish Kapoor is an Indian sculptor, born in 1954, in Bombay. His mother was a Jewish immigrant from Baghdad, taken to Bombay when she was only a few months old. His father worked as a hydrographer in the Indian Navy. After spending his early years in India, Kapoor first moved to Israel, and later to England. He attended Hornsey College of Art and Chelsea School of Art and Design, and he has been living in London since the 70’s.

              Most of Kapoor’s work consists of sculptures which are characterised by simple, curved forms, either monochromatic or in simple colours. His early works relied on the use of powder pigment, covering the actual work and the surrounding area. This method was inspired by Indian markets where different types of brightly coloured powder pigment were being sold in small mounds. Some of Kapoor’s sculptures represent certain dualities of the world, like the Sky Mirrors installed in various cities, each showing the mirror image of the sky and the clouds and thus bringing them closer to the ground. Kapoor aims to remove any traces of fabrication from his works, attempting to present them as independent realities, rather than his creations.

              One of Kapoor’s most popular sculptures is the Cloud Gate, located in the Millennium Park of Chicago, Illinois. The appearance of the sculpture resembles liquid mercury; its shape also inspired people to give it the nickname ‘The Bean’. Kapoor created the design for a competition, where it was chosen from thirty entries to be built in the Millennium Park. Constructions began in 2004 and the sculpture was finished and revealed to the public in 2006. The final structure consisted of 168 stainless steel plates, which were welded together and polished, in order to achieve a seamless, reflective surface. The final sculpture weighs approximately 100 metric tons, which is in contrast with the general appearance of the structure: the distorted reflections of the sky, the surrounding buildings and the people observing the sculpture from up close do not suggest the real weight of Kapoor’s creation.

Zelei Robert

 

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Kemeny

Sneakers

 

This pair of unique canvas shoes was hand-made by Anna Kemény in December 2009. It is a personal gift of mine from her; she decorated it with music notes, a singing bird and other motifs which sort of symbolize me. She used multifunctional paint; there is a green coating on the rubbery edge of the shoes and smaller designs on the canvas upper part.

 Anna Kemény is a close friend of mine. She was born in 1990. She lives in Kisbér, currently studying at the University of Pécs as a Computer Librarian major. She is also a talented artist who makes art in her spare-time. She is good at various fields of art; sewing, knitting, drawing, painting, designing, etc. She is extremely creative and her works –which include a variety of jewelry, toys, books, and clothing as well as practical and functional pieces-, are one-of-a-kind.

Simon Zsófia

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Kinkaku-ji

 

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Landowski

Christ, the Redeemner is a statue of Jesus Christ in Rio de Janeiro. It is a 38 meters tall and 30 meters wide masterpiece which is very famous all over the world.

It weighs 635 tons and it is located at the peak of the 700 meters Corcovado mountain. This monument is one of the tallest of its kind in the world. Besides, it is the most visited monument in Brasil, approximately 1,8 million people go to that place from every part of the world each year.

What is more, the statue is a symbol of Catholicism and it has become an icon of Rio and Brasil.

In 1921, the winner of the construction was Hector Da Silva Costa. It is considered to be one of the wonders of the world.

The idea for erecting a large statue atop Corcovado was first suggested in the mid-1850s when a Catholic priest requested financing from Princess Isabel to build a large religious monument. Princess Isabel did not think much of the idea and it was completely dismissed in 1889.

The second proposal for a landmark statue on the mountain was made in 1921 by the Catholic Circle of Rio. This group organized an event called Semana do Monumento to attract donations and collect signatures to support the building of the statue.

There was a decision made to build the structure out of reinforced concrete, instead of steel. The outer layers are soapstone. The construction took 9 years from1922 to 1931.  The monument was opened on 12, October 1931. The cost of the monument was 250000 dollars.

 

Enyedi István

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Saarinen

The Gateway Arch, also known as the Gateway to the West, is located in St. Louis, Missouri. "It reflects St. Louis’s role in the Westward Expansion of the United States during the nineteenth century." (nps.gov) Being the tallest monument in the USA and even in the world, the memorial is 630 feet (192m) tall and also 630 feet wide at it base. Designed by Finnish-American architect Eero Saarinen and structural engineer Hannskarl Bandel, its construction began on February 12, 1963 and lasted till October 28, 1965. To the public, however, it was only opened on July 10, 1967.

What should be noted here is that interestingly, both legs were built up simultaneously. The monument’s material is basically stainless steel. Creating something that is able to move visitors up and down in a monument with a curve like this caused a huge problem for both the creators and the construction workers. Finally, a tram, that is, an egg-shaped elevator, was designed, which allowed people to move to either base.            

Beforehand, however, visitors have to go under serious security measures, which means that they pass through security checkpoints at each entrance to the Arch. Some notable events took place in history with reference to the Gateway Arch. These include the one when the first light aircraft flew under the arch on June 22, 1966. The Gateway Arch was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1987.

Szabó Gábor

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Vuchetich

The 15 ton statue of Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky, or Iron Felix, as it is often referred to by Moscowians, stood in front of the dreaded Lubjanka building at the heart of Moscow during the heydays of communism and Cold War. After it was erected in 1958, it has become a landmark for the citizens and a symbol of oppression, tyranny and terror for those nations which were occupied by soviet troops. The sculptor was Yevgeny Vuchetich (28 December 1908–12 April 1974), a party-favored "red-artist” and winner of several Stalin Prizes, a Lenin Prize and Hero of Socialist Labor. One of his other statues (Let Us Beat Swords into Plowshares) is now standing near the headquarters of United Nations, gifted to the UN by the Soviet Union. Iron Felix, however, was removed from it’s original position in 1991 by a crowd of cheering people. This event symbolized the end of repression and a mock-up of the scene can be found in the entrance hall of the International Spy Museum in Washington, D.C. Today the statue is in the graveyard of fallen Soviet memorials at the Central House of Artists in Moscow and near its original spot at Lubyanka Square is the Memorial to the Victims of the Gulag.

Lubyanka, the building in front of which Iron Felix originally stood, was the headquarters of the Soviet secret police (NKVD, later KGB). The choice of placement of the statue could not have been any more perfect; it was Dzerzhinsky who had a main role in organizing and then leading the predecessor of the NKVD, the first secret police of the newly formed USSR, the Cheka. Like many other contemporary communist leaders, Dzerzhinsky was personally responsible for the death of thousands, and in this respect it is quite odd how a butcher of history can be commemorated by a statue of several meters of height. In some countries the image of Dzerzhinsky still brings hatred and dread out of people who have experienced communism. Dzerzhinsky, however, was still an interesting figure: he was nicknamed Iron Felix for his unshakeable faith in communism and for his extreme work shifts, which often reached 16-18 hours a day, 7 days a week. His rugged character and attitude towards life which later came to be described as typically Soviet can be shown by the fact that he never wore a coat, not even during the cold Russian winters. Instead he donned a simple blanket over his shoulders and in this respect the statue is inaccurate since it depicts him wearing a coat.

 Boda Tamás Gergely

Sources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felix_Edmundovich_Dzerzhinsky

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yevgeny_Vuchetich

http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=18027137

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